- [Block-1] Biotechnology
- Biotechnology bill 2013
- Genetically modified crops
- Anti GM-crops
- GM crops in India
- [Block-2] Robotics
- [Block-3] Nanotechnology
- Google-X Nanoparticles
- Nanotechnology: theory
- [Block-4] computer / Internet related
- Internet security
- [Block-5] Space-Tech
- ISRO MARS Mission
- IRNSS-Desi GPS
- NASA and others
- [Block-6] AGRO related
- [Block-7] Defense
- [Block-8] Physics, Chemistry, Misc.
Meaning: utilizing biological process for industrial, medical, agricultural and other purposes.
Applications of Biotechnology
- Affordable vaccines for variety of diseases for example rotavac: for rotavirus diarrhea. Clinical trials for human papilloma virus – HPV vaccine.
- Elisa kit to detect Japanese encephalitis in humans and various diseases in fishes.
- Typbar-TCV: typhoid vaccine by Bharat Biotech.
- Bio-fortified crops with higher quantity of vitamins and micronutrients=> no more malnutrition.
- Transgenic drought resistant, pest-resistant crops for various aggro climatic zones of India.
- Biocontrol agents to remove weeds and pests from farm.
- Improving yeast/fermentation process in bakery and desi-liquor industry.
- Bio informatics: for providing information/database Management. Helps in faster is a development and intersubjective coordination.
- Biosensors for detecting gene mutation in predicting genetic disease in future generations.
- Bio prospecting program – to use GIS and remote sensing to leverage bio resources of North East and West ghats.
- Cancer drugs from medicinal plants
- Setup Biotechnology regulatory authority of India and its appellate tribunal
- will replace genetic engineering approval committee (GEAC)
- Will not replace the present setup clinical trial approval. (Drug controller General of India DGCA)
- Single window fast track clearance
- Public consultation not mandatory.
will clear biotechnology application in three areas :
- Agro, forest, fishes
- human and animals
- environment and industries
Soil Bacteria Bacillus Thuringiensis=> take out crystal protein gene from it and insert in normal brinjal=> Bt.Brinjal. If borer/pests/larvae attack they die because of toxic protein binds in their guts.
Genetic engineering approval committee (GEAC) looks after the matter. Permitted field trials for rice, cotton, brinjal, mustard etc. But Challenges:
- its recommendations are not binding on the environment Ministry or the State government
- Even after GM-approval, state governments would refuse under pressure from farmers/NGOs/Desi seed companies. (e.g. Gujarat state Government after Modi left.)
- Committee does not meet on regular basis
- Although FAO and WHO certified that GM crops are safe, >50% of farmland in third world using GM crops. Still environment Ministry hesitant to approve, due to ill-informed media and NGO pressure.
Robotics: New Developments
- Made of up actuator, links and chains.
- For picking up objects, they use mechanical grippers, vacuum-grippers or advanced mechanical finger.
|40s||Isaac Asimov first used the word Robotics.|
|60s||first industrial robot Unimate|
|ASIMO||Honda’s humanoid robot|
|BITS Pilani||Acyut humanoid robot.|
|Chaturobot||DRDO+CAIR. Vision sensors to pick objects.|
|India nuke plants||Six legged robot for handling accident at nuclear power plants. Couldn’t find out its fancy name.|
|ISRO||smartNAV robot for navigating moon surface in next manned mission.|
|MAARS||Modular advanced armed robotic system. Drone like killer-robots. They can attack but only on human command.|
|QRIO||Quest for curiosity – Sony’s entertainment robot.|
Google-X Nanoparticles: How do they work?
- Pills containing Nano-particles.
- Patient swallows the pill=> Nanoparticles enter blood=>movement monitoring by wrist-watch sensor.
- Using this vehicle, Medicine can be delivered to target site e.g. Cancer cell. OR doing diagnosis of a blood-vessel.
Nanometer= 10(-9) meter. At this level, material display special physical, chemical and biological properties.
- Removing toxic chemicals from drinking water
- Nano-composite plastic films for packaging. Can preserve food for longer duration.
- Titanium dioxide nano coating can block ultraviolet radiation=> car color will not fade over time.
- Nano silver: antimicrobial agent, but dangerous to soil contamination
- Carbon Nano-tubes: tear resistant textiles
|Gold Nano particles|
|Heart bleed bug|
- Internet service provider (ISP) should not priorities one type of traffic over others.
- Example: In USA, AT&T, comcast etc. have oligopoly over broadband connection. Suppose, AT&T offered google CEO that I’ll display your website faster to my customers than yahoo/bing websites IF you pay *** $commission$=> in this case “net neutrality” is violated.
- expert opine that India need not pursue net-netruality because we don’t have any oligopolies/monopolies ISPs. We should better focus on bringing down digital divide first.
- Website gives browser a digital certificate with public key.
- Browser matches public key with website’s private key.
- If both match=> secured website=> safe to send bank / credit card info.
- DEITY =>Controller of Certifying authorities=>digital certificates.
- Digital certificate + Public key infra (PKI) + SSL (secure socket layer)=>encrypted channel.
- National Informatics Centre (NIC) gives digital certificates for Government websites.
- But its Delhi office caught fire, hacker accessed backup data in Hyderabad office=> security risk.
|cognitive computing||a new type artificial intelligence/computer system. Just like brain, it learns language and builds its knowledge.|
|System on Chips|
|E-Prisonsuit||NIC portal for prisoners database management. Details of their family, medical history, visitor history etc.|
|Facebook Internet drones|
|Facebook safety app||During disasters, user can tick “I’m ok”, his friends will be notified.|
|KINECT||Microsoft’s sign language translator. Converts sign language into spoken words.|
|Safety PIN App|
|Sandesh Pathak||Software app to deliver agro-message to illterate farmers via text-to-speech from their phones.|
|Saransh tool||To compare CBSE schools, their students’ performance record. Both teachers and parents will benefit.|
- 300 days, 450 crores, 1350 kg, PSLV launch vehicle, Banglore command centre.
- Five indictments for three studies:
- Surface/geology: using (1)camera and (2)spectrometer.
- (Particle) Environment: using (3)MENCA
- Atmosphere: using (4)Photometer and (5)Methane sensor
- Soft power, Big PR exercise, will help us get space contracts from third world via Antarix. Give’em Discount to buy votes at UNGA.
- History created. First attempt, no coaching, yet success. Will Attract and retain talented scientist. Less brain drain.
- NASA’s Maven = far costlier, only study upper atmosphere.
- Technology has indirect uses in weather prediction, telemedicine etc.
- Did not steal from poor’s mouth. Just 450 crore spent. Government has wasted far more in IAY, MNREGA, ICDS etc.
- We rely on American GPS and Russian GLONASS. But they may deliberately feed us wrong coordinates during war against them/their allies.
- Hence Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) to run Indian global positioning system.
- 3+4=7 satellites @36k kms in sky=> can cover India + 1500 kms beyond borders.
- 2014, Oct: Third satellite IRNSS-B launched with PSLV. Command centre near Banglore.
- Std-service for all. Accuracy 20 meters.
- Restricted service for military and Government.
- +Disaster Management, Forest fire, fleet Management, missile navigation, cellphone apps etc.
|Comet Siding Spring|
|Curiosity rover||Found hematite containing rocks at mars. It may have provided chemical-energy to microbes.|
|Earth Science Week|
|Orbital science corp.|
Chinese moon missions
- From 2007 onwards: Chang’E-1, 2 and 3.
- Moon rover Yutu malfunctioned.
- 2014: Chang’E-5-T1: this is just a test mission before next official Chang’E-5 mission.
- 2017: Chang’e-5, a robotic mission to bring lunar soil and rock samples from Moon. Only Russia and USA done this so far. China wants to be third country to accomplish this.
|70||Remote sensing, disaster prediction|
|120||Total no. of satellites China wants to launch.|
|Pusa hydrogel||ICAR developed granular powder. Mix with soil + water=>gel that absorbs and retains water for the crops.|
|Rashtriya Gokul mission|
List the benefits of Agroforestry
Salient Features of National Agroforestry policy 2014
|Dongfeng 31-B missile|
|Sniffer dog molecule|
|CDSA||Clinical Development Services Agency (CDSA). For low cost & high quality clinical development and services|
|INSPIRE||Innovation in Science Pursuit for Inspired Research programme for the youth. To encourage them to join science.|
|KIRAN||Knowledge Initiative for Research and Nurturing – to encourage women scientists come back, who had to take career break/ changed city due to marriage/childbirth earlier.|
|Newton-Bhabha Fund||Between UK and India for 3 societal challenges- Sustainable Cities and Urbanisation, Public Health and Well Being, Energy-Water-Food Nexus.|
|Scientist-teaching program||scientists will have to compulsory teach kids @school and colleges for 12 hours a year. Without any extra salary. DST+CSIR got ~6k scientists.|
|SEAT||Scheme for Early Attraction of Talent. Youth will be award for their work, so they can continue in science field.|
|SHE||Scholarship for Higher Education. Summer attachment / fellowship with seniors.|
|Sindhu Sadhana||Desi Oceanographic Research Vessel. Will help discovering food-energy-mineral resources in Indian ocean.|
Next (and last revision) note: GS3: Environment and disaster Management.
All the revision notes are archived at Mrunal.org/UPSC#CSE-2014
Nanotechnology is the use and the developments of techniques to study physical phenomena and develop new material and devices structures in the physical size range from 1 to 100 nanometres (nm).Is nanotechnology used in robotics? ›
Nanotechnology, the manipulation and assembly of tiny devices often not much larger than a group of molecules, is a perfect application for industrial robotics.What do we use robots for? ›
Robots are widely used in manufacturing, assembly and packing, transport, earth and space exploration, surgery, weaponry, laboratory research, and mass production of consumer and industrial goods.Why robotics? ›
Robots eliminate dangerous jobs for humans because they are capable of working in hazardous environments. They can handle lifting heavy loads, toxic substances and repetitive tasks. This has helped companies to prevent many accidents, also saving time and money.Who is father of nanotechnology? ›
The American physicist and Nobel Prize laureate Richard Feynman introduce the concept of nanotechnology in 1959. During the annual meeting of the American Physical Society, Feynman presented a lecture entitled “There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom” at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).Who is father of nanotechnology in India? ›
The "Father of Indian Nanotechnology" Prof. C.N.R. Rao just unveiled the inaugural edition. The Government of India started the National Nano Mission just about a year and half ago.What are the benefits of nanotechnology? ›
Nanotechnology: a small solution to big problems. Invisible particles that fight cancer cells, faster microprocessors that consume less energy, batteries that last 10 times longer or solar panels that yield twice as much energy.Is nanotech a real thing? ›
Major nanotech discoveries, such as carbon nanotubes, were made throughout the 1990s. By the early 2000s, nanomaterials were being used in consumer products from sports equipment to digital cameras. Modern nanotechnology may be quite new, but nanometer-scale materials have been used for centuries.Where does the nano robotics are used? ›
Potential uses for nanorobotics in medicine include early diagnosis and targeted drug-delivery for cancer, biomedical instrumentation, surgery, pharmacokinetics, monitoring of diabetes, and health care.What are 5 different types of robots? ›
The six most common types of robots are autonomous mobile robots (AMRs), automated guided vehicles (AGVs), articulated robots, humanoids, cobots, and hybrids.
Robots will increase economic growth and productivity and create new career opportunities for many people worldwide. However, there are still warnings out there about massive job losses, forecasting losses of 20 million manufacturing jobs by 2030, or how 30% of all jobs could be automated by 2030.How do robots work? ›
A basic typical robot has a movable physical structure, a motor of some sort, a sensor system, a power supply and a computer "brain" that controls all of these elements. Essentially, robots are human-made versions of animal life — they are machines that replicate human and animal behavior.Who made robots? ›
The earliest robots as we know them were created in the early 1950s by George C. Devol, an inventor from Louisville, Kentucky. He invented and patented a reprogrammable manipulator called "Unimate," from "Universal Automation." For the next decade, he attempted to sell his product in the industry, but did not succeed.How do robots move? ›
Robot arms move through the action of rotating and sliding joints, while mobile robots move through locomotion and steering. Robot tasks, on the other hand, are done with tools (end effectors) on the robot. Tasks may be manipulative, as when using a gripper, or they may be sensory, as when positioning a camera.What nano Means? ›
Nano is a prefix meaning "extremely small." When quantifiable, it translates to one-billionth, as in the nanosecond . Nano comes from the Greek word "nanos," meaning "dwarf."What is the other name of nanotechnology? ›
Due to the popularity and media exposure of the term nanotechnology, the words picotechnology and femtotechnology have been coined in analogy to it, although these are only used rarely and informally.What is the nano size? ›
Just how small is “nano?” In the International System of Units, the prefix "nano" means one-billionth, or 10-9; therefore one nanometer is one-billionth of a meter. It's difficult to imagine just how small that is, so here are some examples: A sheet of paper is about 100,000 nanometers thick.Who first discovered nanotechnology? ›
It is generally acknowledged that the term nanotechnology was first used by the late Professor Norio Taniguchi of the Tokyo Science University in a paper, “On the Basic Concept of 'Nanotechnology'”, presented at a meeting of the Japan Society of Precision Engineering in 1974.What is Nano theory? ›
Nano-Theory Coordinator: Tsuyoshi Miyazaki. Understanding phenomena in the nanospace region, predicting new phenomena and creating novel nanostructured materials. Nanospace is a world in which common sense does not apply, where extremely small atoms are in motion, and electrons fly about in an even smaller space.How nanotechnology affects our lives? ›
Nanotechnology helps to improve vehicle fuel efficiency. The vehicle parts which are made from nanocomposite materials are lighter, stronger, and more chemically resistant comparing to metal. Nanoparticles in fabrics are stain, water, and flame resistance.
Nanotechnology can change dental medicine, healthcare, and human life more profoundly than several developments of the past. However, they even have the potential to evoke important advantages, like improved health, higher use of natural resources, and reduced environmental pollution.Is nanotechnology safe for humans? ›
Out of three human studies, only one showed a passage of inhaled nanoparticles into the bloodstream. Materials which by themselves are not very harmful could be toxic if they are inhaled in the form of nanoparticles. The effects of inhaled nanoparticles in the body may include lung inflammation and heart problems.What is nanotechnology used for today? ›
Nano-engineered materials make superior household products such as degreasers and stain removers; environmental sensors, air purifiers, and filters; antibacterial cleansers; and specialized paints and sealing products, such a self-cleaning house paints that resist dirt and marks.Is there nanotechnology in food? ›
The most commonly used nanoparticle in foods is titanium dioxide. It's used to make foods such as yogurt and coconut flakes look as white as possible, provide opacity to other food colorings, and prevent ingredients from caking up. Nanotech isn't just about aesthetics, however.Is nanotechnology hard to study? ›
Without knowing these fundamentals in some detail, it is hard to understand how to use nanoscience to create valuable products. All these, however, can be very difficult to cram into a limited curricula.What is the size of a nanobot? ›
Nanorobots are even more minute — smaller than a millionth of a metre, or about a 100th the width of a hair. In other words, microrobots are roughly bacteria sized, while nanorobots are about the size of a virus.What materials are nanobots made of? ›
Nanobots can be produced using organic materials such as proteins and polynucleotides, or inorganic materials such as metals or diamond. In the case of diamond, this stands out for its high strength and high performance.What are nanoparticles in food? ›
They are basically metals broken into very, very tiny particles that are measured in billionths of a meter, called nanometers. Nanoparticles are used in food for several reasons: to keep food fresh for longer periods, to color and thicken processed food, or to add nutrients.Why is nanotechnology important in UPSC? ›
Nanotechnology is helping to considerably improve, even revolutionize, many technology and industry sectors: information technology, homeland security, medicine, transportation, energy, food safety, and environmental science, among many others.What is nanotechnology in simple terms? ›
Nanotechnology is the term given to those areas of science and engineering where phenomena that take place at dimensions in the nanometre scale are utilised in the design, characterisation, production and application of materials, structures, devices and systems.
Nanotechnology refers to the branch of science and engineering devoted to designing, producing, and using structures, devices, and systems by manipulating atoms and molecules at nanoscale, i.e. having one or more dimensions of the order of 100 nanometres (100 millionth of a millimetre) or less.What is meant by nanobiotechnology? ›
Definition. Nanobiotechnology is a discipline in which tools from nanotechnology are developed and applied to study biological phenomena. For example, nanoparticles can serve as probes, sensors or vehicles for biomolecule delivery in cellular systems.Do nanoparticles exist in nature? ›
1. Naturally occurring nanoparticles (NNPs) are often present in all spheres of the Earth (i.e., in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and even in the biosphere), irrespective of human activities.What is the conclusion of nanotechnology? ›
In summary, nanotechnology requires the measurement, prediction, and fabrication of matter on the scale of atoms and molecules. It is hoped that atomic-scale nanotechnology will have a revolutionary impact on the way we do, design, and produce things in the future.
The development of more effective energy-producing, energy-absorbing, and energy storage products in smaller and more efficient devices is possible with this technology. Such items like batteries, fuel cells, and solar cells can be built smaller but can be made to be more effective with this technology.Is nanotechnology hard to study? ›
Without knowing these fundamentals in some detail, it is hard to understand how to use nanoscience to create valuable products. All these, however, can be very difficult to cram into a limited curricula.What is example of nanotechnology? ›
Nanosensors, dramatically improved high-performance materials, or highly efficient propulsion systems are but a few examples. The applications of nanotechnology and nanomaterials can be found in many cosmetic products including moisturisers, hair care products, make up and sunscreen.Where is nanotechnology used today? ›
The applications of nanotechnology, commonly incorporate industrial, medicinal, and energy uses. These include more durable construction materials, therapeutic drug delivery, and higher density hydrogen fuel cells that are environmentally friendly.Is nanotechnology a good career? ›
NE students' unique collection of skills and attributes make them an excellent fit for employment in many sectors. Co-op NE students work in a variety of roles, often making notable contributions to their workplace.Is nanotechnology safe? ›
Out of three human studies, only one showed a passage of inhaled nanoparticles into the bloodstream. Materials which by themselves are not very harmful could be toxic if they are inhaled in the form of nanoparticles. The effects of inhaled nanoparticles in the body may include lung inflammation and heart problems.