You are here
- View(active tab)
Vocabulary: macromolecule, polymer, monomer, condensation reaction (dehydration reaction), enzyme, hydrolysis, carbohydrate, monosaccharide, glycosidic linkage, polysaccharide, starch, glycogen, chitin, cellulose, lipid, fatty acid, fats/oils, saturated fatty acid, unsaturated fatty acid, ester bond, phospholipid, steroid, cholesterol, catalyst, polypeptide, protein, amino acid, peptide bond, hydrophobic interaction, disulfide bridge, denaturation, chaperonins, nucleic acids, nucleotides, phosphodiester bond, deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid, ATP, double helix, antiparallel, nitrogenous base
After attending lectures and studying the chapter, the student should be able to:
1. Distinguish between inorganic and organic substances and give examples of each.
2. For each of the functional groups listed below, show the structural formula of the groups, give an example of a biologic organic molecule on which is can be found.
3. List the 4 categories of organic macromolecules that make up all living things and the
main functions of each
4. Explain how organic macromolecules are polymers made up of monomer subunits.
5. Recognize the condensation reaction (dehydration synthesis) process of making
organic macromolecules from monomers
6. Know the following bonds made as a result of dehydration synthesis and the
macromolecules that result:
2 amino acids -----peptide bond (proteins)
2 sugar molecules -----glycosidic bond (carbohydrates)
2 nucleotides ---------- phosphodiester bond (nucleic acid)
glycerol and fatty acid ------ ester bond
7. Describe the hydrolysis process of breaking down organic macromolecules to monomer subunits.
8. Relating to carbohydrates:
a. Distinguish between and give examples of monosaccharides, disaccharides,
Know which types of organism make the following polysachharides as well as the function of each
Cellulose, glycogen, chitin, starch
b. State the monomer subunits that make up carbohydrates.
c. State the name given to the bond between monosaccharides.
9. Relating to lipids:
a. Describe a major difference between carbohydrates and lipids.
b. Give examples of lipids and the function of each
Triglycerides (fats/oils), phospholipids, steroids, waxes
c. State the subunits that make up fats.
d. Describe a triglyceride molecule and state the name given to the bond between
glycerol and a fatty acid.
e. Distinguish between the structure of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, and between monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids.
10. Relating to proteins:
a. Give examples of protein functions (p.90)
b. State the monomer subunits that make up proteins.
c. Show the structural formula of an amino acid, including the amino group, the carboxyl group, and the R group.
d. Describe the hydrophilic/hydrophobic nature of each of the following types of amino acids: nonpolar, polar, and electrically charged.
e. State the name given to the bond between amino acids.
f. Distinguish between a polypeptide and a protein.
g. Specifically describe the four levels of protein structure that give proteins their specific shape: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure.
h. Describe what is meant by denaturation and renaturation of a protein.
i. Explain why proteins function best under optimum pH and optimum temperature conditions.
11. Relating to nucleic acids:
a. State the 2 kinds of nucleic acids.
b. State the monomer subunits that make up nucleic acids.
c. Describe the molecular structure of a nucleotide.
d. State the name given to the bond between nucleotides.
e.Explain the function of DNA.
f. Explain the function of RNA
Terms : Hide Images
|934910947||macromolecule||There are Four major types of biological macromolecules that make up the human body: nucleic acids (DNA & RNA), Carbohydrates, Proteins and Fats||0|
|934910948||polymer||a long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monomers linked together by covalent bonds||1|
|934910949||monomer||the subunit that serves as the building block of a polymer||2|
|934910950||enzyme||a macromolecule serving as a catalyst, a chemical agent that increases the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction. Most are proteins.||3|
|934910951||dehydration reaction||a chemical reaction in which 2 molecules become covalently bonded to each other with the removal of a water molecule||4|
|934910952||hydrolysis||a chemical reaction that breaks bonds between 2 molecules by the addition of water; functions in disassembly of polymers to monomers||5|
|934910953||carbohydrates||a sugar (monosaccharide) or one of its dimers (disaccharide) or polymers (polysaccharide)||6|
|934910954||monosaccharide||the simplest carbohydrate, active alone or serving as a monomer for disaccharides and polysaccharides. Also known as simple sugars, that are generally some multiple of CH2O||7|
|934910955||disaccharide||a double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic linkage formed by a dehydration reaction||8|
|934910956||glycosidic linkage||a covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction||9|
|934910957||polysaccharide||Polymers of simple sugars covalently linked by glycosidic bonds||10|
|934910958||starch||a storage polysaccharide in plants, consisting entirely of glucose monomers joined by alpha glycosidic linkages||11|
|934910959||glycogen||an extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals; the animal equivalent of starch||12|
|934910960||cellulose||a structural polysaccharide of plant cell walls, consisting of glucose monomers joined by beta glycosidic linkages||13|
|934910961||chitin||a structural polysaccharide, consisting of amino sugar monomers, found in many fungal cell walls and in the exoskeletons of all arthopods||14|
|934910962||lipid||Hydrophobic. Considered monomers. Any of a group of large biological molecules, including fats, phospholipids, and steroids, that mix poorly, if at all, with water. Provide an efficient form of energy storage.||15|
|934910963||fat||a lipid consisting of 3 fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule; also called a triacylglycerol or a triglyceride.||16|
|934910964||fatty acid||a carboxylic acid with a long carbon chain; vary in length and in the number and location of double bonds; 3 fatty acids linked to a glycerol molecule form a fat molecule, also known as a triacyglycerol or a triglyceride||17|
|934910965||triacylglycerol||a lipid consisting of 3 fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule; also called a fat or triglyceride||18|
|934910966||saturated fatty acid||a fatty acid in which all carbons in the hydrocarbon tail are connected by single bonds, thus maximizing the number of hydrogen atoms that are attached to the carbon skeleton||19|
|934910967||unsaturated fatty acid||a fatty acid that has one or more double bonds between carbons in the hydrocarbon tail. Such bonding reduces the number of hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon skeleton||20|
|934910968||trans fat||an unsaturated fat, formed artificially during hydrogenation of oils, containing one or more trans double bonds||21|
|934910969||phospholipid||a lipid made up of glycerol joined to 2 fatty acids and a phosphate group. The hydrocarbon chains of the fatty acids act as nonpolar, hydrophobic tails, while the rest of the molecule acts as a polar, hydrophilic head.; form bilayers that function as biological membranes||22|
|934910970||steroids||a type of lipid characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of 4 fused rings with various chemical groups attached||23|
|934910971||cholesterol||a steroid that forms an essential component of animal cell membranes and acts as a precursor molecule for the synthesis of other biologically important steroids, such as many hormones||24|
|934910972||catalyst||a chemical agent that selectively increases the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction.||25|
|934910973||Polypeptide||A chain of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds or dehydration reactions||26|
|934910974||protein||a biologically functional molecule consisting of one or more polypeptides folded and coiled into a specific 3D structure||27|
|934910975||amino acid||An organic molecule possessing both a carboxyl and an amino group; serve as monomers of polypeptides||28|
|934910976||peptide bond||the covalent bond between the carboxyl group on one amino acid and the amino group on another, formed by dehydration reaction||29|
|934910977||primary structure||the level of protein structure referring to the specific linear sequence of amino acids||30|
|934910978||secondary structure||regions of repetitive coiling or folding of the polypeptide backbone of a protein due to hydrogen bonding between constituents of the backbone (not the side chains).||31|
|934910979||alpha helix||a coiled region constituting one form of the secondary structure of proteins, arising from a specific pattern of hydrogen bonding between the atoms of the polypeptide backbone (not the side chains)||32|
|934910980||beta pleated sheet||one of the secondary structure of proteins in which the polypeptide chain fold back and forth. 2 regions of the chain lie parallel to each other and are held together by hydrogen bonds between atoms of the polypeptide backbone (not the side chains).||33|
|934910981||tertiary structure||The overall shape of a protein molecule due to interactions of amino acid side chains, including hydrophobic interactions, ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds, and disulfide bridges||34|
|934910982||hydrophobic interaction||a type of weak chemical interaction caused when molecules that do not mix with water coalesce to exclude water||35|
|934910983||disulfide bridge||a strong covalent bond formed when the sulfur of one cysteine monomer bonds to the sulfur of another cysteine monomer||36|
|934910984||quaternary structure||the particular shape of a complex, aggregate protein, defined by the characteristic 3D arrangement of its constituent subunits, each a polypeptide||37|
|934910985||sickle-cell disease||a recessively inherited human blood disorder in which a single nucleotide change in the beta globin gene causes hemoglobin to aggregate, changing red blood cell shape and causing multiple symptoms in afflicted individuals||38|
|934910986||denaturation||in proteins, a process in which a protein loses its native shape due to the disruption of weak chemical bonds and interactions, thereby becoming Biologically inactive; in DNA, the separation of the two strands of the double helix. Occurs under extreme (noncellular) conditions of pH, salt concentration or temperature||39|
|934910987||chaperonin||a protein complex that assists in the proper folding of other proteins||40|
|934910989||gene||a discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses)||41|
|934910990||nucleic acid||a polymer (polynucleotide) consisting of many nucleotide monomers; serves as a blueprint for proteins and, through the actions of proteins, for all cellular activities. the 2 types of nucleic acid are DNA and RNA||42|
|934910991||deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)||a double-stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule, consisting of nucleotide monomers with a deoxyribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G) and thymine (T); capable of being replicated and determining the inherited structure of a cell's proteins||43|
|934910992||ribonucleic acid (RNA)||a type of nucleic acid consisting of a polynucleotide made up of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil (U); usually single-stranded; functions in protein synthesis, gene regulation, and as the genome of some viruses||44|
|934910993||polynucelotide||a polymer consisting of many nucleotide monomers in a chain. The nucelotides can be those of DNA or RNA.||45|
|934910994||nucleotide||the building block of a nucleic acid, consisting of a 5 carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and one or more phosphate groups||46|
|934910995||pyrimidine||1 of 2 types of nitrogenous bases found in nucleotides, characterized by a 6-membered ring. Cytosine (C), thymine (T) and uracil (U) are examples of these.||47|
|934910996||purines||1 of 2 types of nitrogenous bases found in nucleotides, characterized by a 6-membered ring fused with a 5-membered ring. Adenine (A) and guanine (G) are examples of these.||48|
|934910997||deoxyribose||the sugar component of DNA nucleotides, having 1 of fewer hydroxyl group than ribose, the sugar component of the RNA nucleotide||49|
|934910998||ribose||the sugar component of RNA nucleotides||50|
|934910999||double helix||the form of native DNA, referring to its 2 adjacent antiparallel polynucleotide strands wound around an imaginary axis into a spiral shape||51|
|934911000||antiparallel||referring to the arrangement of the sugar-phophate backbones in a DNA double helix (they run in opposite 5' -> 3' directions)||52|
|974631943||Saturated fat||All carbons in the hydrocarbon tail are connected by single bonds||53|
|974631944||Unsaturated fat||A fatty acid that has one or more double bonds between carbons in the hydrocarbon tail.||54|
|974631945||What are 6 functions of Proteins?||Structural supportStorageTransportCellular CommunicationsMovementDefense against substaces||55|
|974631946||Primary Protein Structure||Primary structure - the sequence of amino acids in a proteinPrimary structure is determined by inherited genetic information||56|
|974631949||ATP||(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work||59|
|974845424||What are the three types of Polymers?||C - P - NCarbohydratesProteinsNucleic Acids||61|
|974845425||In which two ways do we classify monosaccharides?||The location of the carbonyl groupThe number of carbons in the carbon skeleton||62|
|974845426||Give two examples of 3 Carbon Sugars||Aldose and Ketose||63|
|974845427||What is the simplest form of starch?||Amylose||64|
|974845428||What are the three main types of Lipids?||TriglyceridesPhospholipidsSteroids||65|
|974876080||Enzymes||Proteins that act as a catalyst to speed up chemical reactions||66|
|974876081||What are the Four Levels of Protein Structure?||PrimarySecondaryTertiaryQuaternary||67|
|974911424||What determines Tertiary Structure?||Interactions between R Groups rather than interactions between backbone constituents||68|
|974911425||What are the R groups that determine Tertiary Structure?||Hydrogen BondsIonic BodsHydrophobic Interactionsvan der Waals interactions||69|
|975055226||What is Collagen?||A fibrous protein consisting of three polypeptide coiled like a rope||70|
|975055227||What determines the quaternary structure of a protein?||When two or more poplypeptide chains form one macromolecule||71|
|975055228||How many essential amino acids are there and what are they used for?||There are 20 essential amino acids used to form a protein.||72|
|975055235||What area the FOUR categories of organic molecules that make up all living things||Nucleic Acids (DNA & RNA)CarbohydratesLipids or Fats hycProteins||79|
|975766827||Monosaccharide||The simplest carbohydrate, active alone or serving as a monomer for disaccharides and polysaccharides. Also known as simple sugars, the molecular formulas of monosaccharides are generally some multiple of CH2O.||80|
|975766828||dissaccharide||A double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis.||81|
|975766829||polysaccharide (Cellulose)||A structural polysaccharide of cell walls, consisting of glucose monomers joined by β-1, 4-glycosidic linkages. A major component of pant cell walls||82|
|975766831||polysaccharide (glycogen)||An extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals; the animal equivalent of starch.||84|
|975766832||Which monosaccharide is the energy storing molecule produced by photosynthesis. Two of these molecules combine to make glucose||Glyceraldehyde||85|
|975766833||Which monosaccharide is a major nutrient, central to cellular metobolism. It is broken down for energy in the process of cellular respiration. The carbon skeleton of this sugar can also be used to build many other organic molecules, including amino acids and fatty acids.||Glucose||86|
|975766834||Which monosaccharide combines with glucose to form lactose, the disaccharide in milk||Galactose||87|
|975766835||Which monosaccharide is sometimes called fruit sugar-- the one that makes apples and berries sweet. This monosaccharide is also used to make the disaccharide sucrose, or table sugar.||Fructose||88|
|975766836||Which monosaccharide is an important component of RNA and ATP. A modified form is used in building DNA.||Ribose||89|
|975838281||List the 4 categories of organic macromolecules that make up all living things and themain functions of each||...||90|
|975838289||Explain how organic macromolecules are polymers made up of monomer subunits.||...||91|
|975838293||Describe the hydrolysis process of breaking down organic macromolecules to monomer subunits.||...||92|
|975838295||Relating to carbohydrates, distinguish between and give examples of monosaccharides, disaccharides,and polysaccharides.||...||93|
|975838297||Relating to carbohydrates, Know which types of organism make the following polysachharides as well as the function of each: Cellulose, glycogen, chitin, starch||...||94|
|975838299||Relating to carbohydrates, state the monomer subunits that make up carbohydrates.||...||95|
|975838301||Relating to carbohydrates, State the name given to the bond between monosaccharides.||...||96|
|975838303||Relating to lipids, Describe a major difference between carbohydrates and lipids||...||97|
|975838305||Relating to lipids, Give examples of lipids and the function of eachTriglycerides (fats/oils), phospholipids, steroids, waxes||...||98|
|975838307||Relating to lipids, State the subunits that make up fats.||...||99|
|975838308||Relating to lipids, Describe a triglyceride molecule and state the name given to the bond betweenglycerol and a fatty acid||...||100|
|975838309||Relating to lipids, distinguish between the structure of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, and between monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids.||...||101|
|975838310||Relating to nucleic acids, state the 2 kinds of nucleic acids||...||102|
|975838312||Relating to nucleic acids, state the monomer subunits that make up nucleic acids||...||103|
|975838314||Relating to nucleic acids, describe the molecular structure of a nucleotide||...||104|
|975838317||Relating to nucleic acids, state the name given to the bond between nucleotides||...||105|
|975838318||Relating to nucleic acids, explain the function of DNA||...||106|
|975838319||Relating to nucleic acids, explain the function of RNA||...||107|
|975838320||Relating to proteins, give examples of protein functions||...||108|
|975838321||Relating to proteins, state the monomer subunits that make up proteins||...||109|
|975838322||Relating to proteins, show the structural formula of an amino acid, including the amino group, the carboxyl group, and the R group.||...||110|
|975838324||Relating to proteins, describe the hydrophilic/hydrophobic nature of each of the following types of amino acids: nonpolar, polar, and electrically charged||...||111|
|975838325||Relating to proteins, state the name given to the bond between amino acids||...||112|
|975838326||Relating to proteins, distinguish between a polypeptide and a protein||...||113|
|975838327||Relating to proteins, specifically describe the four levels of protein structure that give proteins their specific shape: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure||...||114|
|975838328||Relating to proteins, describe what is meant by denaturation and renaturation of a protein.||...||115|
|975838329||Relating to proteins, explain why proteins function best under optimum pH and optimum temperature conditions.||...||116|
We hope your visit has been a productive one. If you're having any problems, or would like to give some feedback, we'd love to hear from you.
For general help, questions, and suggestions, try our dedicated support forums.
If you need to contact the Course-Notes.Org web experience team, please use our contact form.
While we strive to provide the most comprehensive notes for as many high school textbooks as possible, there are certainly going to be some that we miss. Drop us a note and let us know which textbooks you need. Be sure to include which edition of the textbook you are using! If we see enough demand, we'll do whatever we can to get those notes up on the site for you!
- Advertising Opportunities
- Newsletter Archive
- Our Blog
- Plagiarism Policy
- Textbook Request
- DMCA Takedown Request
Which type of biological molecule carbohydrate lipid or protein is described by the formula C5H10O5? ›
For example, ribose is a 5-carbon sugar with the formula C5H10O5. It is a pentose sugar. (From the root penta–, meaning five.)
What term did you learn in Chapter 4 for compounds that have the same molecular formulas but different structural formulas? ›
Chemical compounds that have identical chemical formulae but differ in properties and the arrangement of atoms in the molecule are called isomers. Therefore, the compounds that exhibit isomerism are known as isomers.
The levels, from smallest to largest, are: molecule, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism, population, community, ecosystem, biosphere.
Complete step-by-step answer:An aldehyde sugar is a monosaccharide with carbon backbone and an aldehyde group attached with it. A ketose sugar is a monosaccharide with carbon backbone and a ketone group attached with it.
The correct answer is B.
Salt is not one of the major groups of organic substances in the body. The four organic substances are proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids.
Large biological molecules are polymers, consisting of many subunits linked to form a long chain. The diversity of large biological molecules is the result of the many possible arrangements of monomeric subunits to form polymers.
Which of the following best describes a structural similarity between the two molecules shown in Figure 1 that is relevant to their function? ›
Which of the following best describes a structural similarity between the two molecules shown in Figure 1 that is relevant to their function? both molecules contain nitrogenous bases and phosphate groups, which allows each molecule to be used as a monomer in the synthesis of proteins and lipids.
But the four major types of biomolecules include carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins. Most of the other compounds are derivatives of these major primary compounds. Every biomolecule has its characteristics and is designated to perform some specific function essential for life.
Which of the following pairs of molecules share the same molecular formula but differ in structure? ›
Which of the following pairs of molecules share the same chemical composition but differ in molecular structure? glucose and fructose-Glucose and fructose are isomers, molecules that share the same chemical composition but differ in their final structures.
The biological levels of organization of living things arranged from the simplest to most complex are: organelle, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms, populations, communities, ecosystem, and biosphere.
It is convenient to consider the structures of the body in terms of fundamental levels of organization that increase in complexity, such as (from smallest to largest): chemicals, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and an organism.
Answer: The correct option is (D) Protein-sucrose-glucose-water. Explanation: Proteins are large complex molecules.
An aldose is defined as a monosaccharide whose carbon skeleton has an aldehyde group. They are primarily found in plants. Ketose is a monosaccharide whose carbon skeleton has a ketone group. Only in the presence of reducing sugar, they can isomerize to aldose. They are used in processed food.
Glucose and fructose, for example, are carbohydrates with the formula C6H12O6. These sugars differ in the location of the C=O. double bond on the six-carbon chain, as shown in the figure below. Glucose is an aldehyde; fructose is a ketone.
Condensation reactions are called dehydration synthesis reactions. This is because they involve the combining of molecules with the loss of water.
The four main groups of biologically important organic compounds are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids.
- Each of these exists as a polymer, composed of the monomers shown in the table. ...
- monosaccharide, disaccharides, and polysaccharides; quick energy for the cell. ...
- and a little O. ...
- sometimes S.
Organic compounds essential to human functioning include carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleotides. These compounds are said to be organic because they contain both carbon and hydrogen.
The other elements that make up biological molecules are hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus. These atoms bond together to form various small molecules called monomers. The monomers, in turn, chemically bond to each other to form complex chains or networks that make the large biological molecules.
Meaning. Biological macromolecule. A large, organic molecule such as carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Monomer. A molecule that is a building block for larger molecules (polymers).
If the molecule of an element contains 1 atom it's called a monoatomic molecule. E.g. Na, He, etc. If the molecule of an element contains 2 atoms it's called a diatomic molecule.
biomolecule, also called biological molecule, any of numerous substances that are produced by cells and living organisms. Biomolecules have a wide range of sizes and structures and perform a vast array of functions. The four major types of biomolecules are carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins.
Chemical structure determines the molecular geometry of a compound by portraying the spatial arrangement of atoms and chemical bonds in the molecule. This provides chemists with an important visual representation of a chemical formula.
Why is carbon especially well suited to serve as the structural foundation of many biological molecules? ›
Because a C atom can form covalent bonds to as many as four other atoms, it's well suited to form the basic skeleton, or “backbone,” of a macromolecule.
Fats are the primary long-term energy storage molecules of the body. Fats are very compact and light weight, so they are an efficient way to store excess energy. A fat is made up of a glycerol, which is attached to 1 to 3 fatty acid chains.
It is convenient to describe protein structure in terms of 4 different aspects of covalent structure and folding patterns. The different levels of protein structure are known as primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure.
Structural Isomer Examples
Butane and isobutane (C4H10) are structural isomers of each other. Pentan-1-ol, pentan-2-ol, and pentan-3-ol are structural isomers that exhibit position isomerism. Cyclohexane and hex-1-ene are examples of functional group structural isomers.
Isomers are compounds with the same molecular formulae but that are structurally different in some way. It is important to be able to recognise isomers because they can have different chemical, physical properties and biological properties.
Isomerism occurs when two or more substances have the same chemical composition but different chemical arrangements.
Many organ systems are then organised and form an organism. So, the correct order is: Cells - Tissues - Organs - Organ systems - Organism.
Thus, the correct answer is 'Phylum - Class - Order - Family - Genus.
Which of the following levels of organization is arranged in the correct sequence from most to least? ›
Answer and Explanation: The correct sequence of arrangement of the levels of ecological organization from least to most inclusive is organism, population, community,... See full answer below.
Answer and Explanation: The organization of life is ordered as following from the smallest to largest; cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organism.
Atom, molecule, organelle, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism, population, community, ecosystem, biosphere.
Typical levels of organization that one finds in the literature include the atomic, molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, organismal, group, population, community, ecosystem, landscape, and biosphere levels.
Starch—A polysaccharide made of large numbers of glucose molecules joined together. Starch is the long-term energy storage compound in plants.
Monosaccharides and disaccharides, the smallest (lower molecular weight) carbohydrates, are commonly referred to as sugars.
polymerization, any process in which relatively small molecules, called monomers, combine chemically to produce a very large chainlike or network molecule, called a polymer.
Monosaccharide sugar molecules that contain a five carbon backbone.
Ribose is a carbohydrate with the formula C5H10O5; specifically, it is a pentose monosaccharide (simple sugar) with linear form H−(C=O)−(CHOH)4−H, which has all the hydroxyl groups on the same ... See More.
Xylose or wood sugar is an aldopentose, a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms and an aldehyde functional group. It has chemical formula C5H10O5 and is 40% as sweet as sucrose.
Ribose is a 5 carbon sugar that plays an important role in nucleic acids. The chemical formula for ribose is C5H10O5.
From the chemical formula, you will know different atoms and their number in a Ribose molecule. Chemical formula of Ribose is C5H10O5. From the chemical formula of Ribose, you can find that one molecule of ribose has five Carbon (C) atoms, ten Hydrogen (H) atoms and five Oxygen (O) atoms.
Monosaccharides with five carbon atoms are called pentose sugars. Deoxyribose and ribose are the pentose sugars present in DNA and RNA respectively. Glucose is a hexose sugar while erythrose is a tetrose sugar with six and four carbon atoms respectively.
Cyclopentane | C5H10 - PubChem.
It is a reducing sugar with only one reducing end, no matter how large the glycogen molecule is or how many branches it has (note, however, that the unique reducing end is usually covalently linked to glycogenin and will therefore not be reducing).
The glucose has two isomers, alpha glucose and beta glucose. The main difference between the two lies in the orientation of the (-OH) hydroxyl group. In both cases, the hydroxyl group gets connected to the first carbon atom, just the geometry is different.
|Classification||Type of sugar||Food sources|
|Non-fermentable polysaccharides||Cellulose, pectin, lignin||Cereal bran, whole grains, edible plants|
For example, glucose, which contains six carbons, is described as a hexose.
pentose in British English
(ˈpɛntəʊs ) noun. any monosaccharide containing five atoms of carbon per molecule: occur mainly in plants and the nucleic acids.
An example of a pentose sugar would be ribose in RNA and deoxyribose in DNA. There are 2 types of pentoses; ketopentoses and aldopentoses.
Pentose sugars – 5-Carbon sugar 1) Deoxyribose – in DNA 2) Ribose – in RNA b. Phosphate group c. Nitrogenous bases 1) Purines a) Adenine b) Guanine 2) Pyrimidines a) Cytosine b) Thymine 2. Types of Nucleic Acids a.
Ribose and deoxyribose are classified as monosaccharides, aldoses, pentoses, and are reducing sugars.
The pentose sugar contains five carbon atoms. Each carbon atom of the sugar molecule are numbered as 1′, 2′, 3′, 4′, and 5′ (1′ is read as “one prime”). The two main functional groups that are attached to the sugar are often named in reference to the carbon to whch they are bound.